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The likelihood of finding a muscle disease in an individual with muscle pain who has a normal neurologic exam and laboratory tests is quite low. A pathogenic role for the hair follicle mite, Demodex folliculorum, has not been proved. Among these include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, celiac disease, and thyroid disease. The optimal treatment for genital warts or dysplasia is surgical excision or ablation. The presence of a chaperone, ideally a nurse or a relative, is often sensible, and is essential if examination of the genitalia is necessary. Some patients who have delayed eruption of the second molars alone might fall into the category of mild eruption failure syndrome. If you have hired an attorney to file a claim on your behalf and would like information on the status of your claim. A sample of sinus fluid may need to be obtained by a specialist to identify the exact strain of bacteria causing the sinusitis. The routine practice of such drills fosters a calm, competent response to a natural or human generated disaster when it occurs (1). Child specific exercises are developed in order to encourage a child with mental or physical disabilities to contribute to their own recovery and development. In Mexico it occupies fifth place amongst the causes of mortality in children under the age of five years and generates 20. In addition, this project will develop an educational component focused on the promotion of hand hygiene in community settings for the public, childcare providers, caregivers of young children, school teachers and students. The skin and internal malignancy Obvious skin signs can be seen if a tumour invades the skin, or sends metastases to it; but there are other more subtle ways in which tumours can affect the skin. Optimizing the delivery of vaccines As new vaccines come on the scene (see Chapter 2) and as more vaccine doses are needed to immunize more people in more age groups, the logistics and infrastructure needed to transport vaccines safely and efficiently from the manufacturer to the 59 Chapter 3. The American academy of orthopaedic surgeons outcomes instruments: normative values from the general population. Patients show them when a drug is given in a high dose, or even in a therapeutic dose. Longitudinal impact of sleep on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a systematic review and biasadjusted meta-analysis. The recent Commonwealth funding initiatives to provide health assessments to those aged over 75 years(42) can be postulated as a factor contributing to the increase in the proportion of practice nurses undertaking home visits seen in this investigation. Sandboxes should be covered with a lid or other covering when they are not in use; c. Theseshoulddescribefully, but as concisely as possible, the results of original clinical and/or laboratory research. Topical decongestants may decrease nasal congestion; expert opinion suggests that they may improve drainage. Perhaps the underlying abnormality is a genetic defect in the control of keratinocyte growth. A place that parents/ guardians feel they are welcome to breastfeed, pump, or bottle-feed can create a positive and supportive environment for the family. These patients often develop widespread dental caries, difficulty swallowing and chewing foods, problems with speaking for long periods of time and an increased risk for candidal infection. Early studies proved such regimens to be of less benefit, and combination protocols became favored. If the state has a training/professional development registry, the director should provide training documentation to the registry.

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For vaccines, the term antigen refers to a vaccine component that induces protection against a single disease. Update, 9 April 2010: New Expiry Date for Unused Adjuvanted H1N1 Vaccine (Arepanrix). Usually, a 84 Chapter 4: Gastrointestinal, Hepatic, and Nutritional Problems dietitian or physician can make simple modifications to the therapy that will alleviate these symptoms. Concern about Plagiocephaly: If parents/guardians or caregivers/teachers are concerned about positional plagiocephaly (flat head or flat spot on head), they can continue to use safe sleep practices but also do the following: a. Questionnaires were coded by using a unique number for each center, school, and participant to ensure confidentiality and to link the questionnaires between the adults and children. The observer reliability of these measures is sufficiently high to justify their use in the clinical setting. Jaundice (yellowing of eyes or skin), may be present in adults but it is often absent in children. Intraepidermal blisters appear within the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and so have thin roofs and rupture easily to leave an oozing denuded surface: this tendency is even more marked with subcorneal blisters, which form just beneath the stratum corneum at the outermost edge of the viable epidermis, and therefore have even thinner roofs. Genetic testing can have many benefits, risks, and limitations, and as a result, is a personal decision. Some patients with lichen planus also have a hepatitis B or C infectionabut lichen planus itself is not infectious. In such cases the animal should be brushed vigorously while standing on a polythene sheet. The proximal and sometimes the lateral nail folds of one or more fingers become bolstered and red (see Fig. People whose work or hobbies bring them frequently into contact with potentially rabid animals should have a series of three rabies vaccine shots before they are exposed. Serum or plasma samples diluted with this sample buffer are only to be used for the determination of IgM antibodies. Insufficient vaccine supply chains can further exacerbate challenges to providing immunization services for hard-to-reach populations. Lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma Understandably, these rare conditions have often been confused in the past. Zinc use for the treatment of acute diarrhea affects immune functioning, the intestinal structure or its function, and the process of epithelial recuperation during diarrhea. Standard guide for fences for residential outdoor swimming pools, hot tubs, and spas. Such a statement clearly identifies the two distinct issues of cost of courses and the availability of study leave provisions to allow practice nurses time to attend education sessions. Growing evidence suggests that frequent visits by a trained health 40 Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards 9. These findings are consistent with the observation that individuals with salivary dysfunction are prone to root and incisal caries, rather than coronal caries. Elimination half-life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 12 hours. Each study location was 40 representative of the intended use setting (clinical laboratories) and testing was performed by trained clinical laboratory personnel. Most disease episodes consist of a mild attack of watery diarrhoea, accompanied by fever and vomiting (1). It calls for a strategy to ensure high levels of immunity through vaccination among children, adolescents, and young adults (both women of childbearing age and men). The categorical data will be described with simple frequency, proportions and ratios. Having a candidate and his or her family meet with a rotationplasty patient often helps to alleviate many initial fears and concerns and offers patients a better appreciation for the procedure and its benefits. If the parents/guardians consent to disclose the information and if the information is relevant to health and safety concerns in the child care setting, this evaluation should consist of the following: a.

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In summary, this Project provides empirical data to inform development and evaluation of models of care for people with chronic and complex care needs in Australian general practice. Since closing a child care home has a negative impact on the families and children they serve, systems should be developed to provide qualified alternative homes or substitutes for family child care home caregivers/teachers. Sometimes a child gets sick with something that is similar to a disease they have been vaccinated against. Tell your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or does not go away. Stairs, ramps, and elevators may become unstable because they can be pathways for fire and smoke. Ptosis often begins as a unilateral or asymmetric problem that can be unnoticed by the patient but revealed in photographs. In addition to the potential utility of documenting sensitization status to characterize patients with asthma in these clinical studies, the generalizability of the findings is also likely affected by disease severity. Radiographic assessment of maxillary canine eruption in children with clinical signs of eruption disturbance. Functional outcome and quality of life in adult patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis. Clinical discretion: Adolescents not at increased risk for meningococcal B infection who want MenB vaccine. Parmentier S, Schetelig J, Lorenz K, Kramer M, Ireland R, Schuler U, Ordemann R, Rall G, Schaich M, Bornhauser M, Ehninger G, Kroschinsky F (2012) Assessment of dysplastic hematopoiesis: lessons from healthy bone marrow donors. There is no convincing evidence that intranasal or systemic corticosteroids are beneficial7,8 or that zinc lozenges are consistently beneficial,9-11 and the relatively nonsedating histamine H1 antagonists (e. If these changes do not reverse themselves when the dosage has been reduced for 1 month, then the drug should be stopped. Far more is known about the psychometrics of the Pain Severity scale and the Pain Interference scale than about the other features of the questionnaire (pain relief, body map, etc. The frequency of toothbrushing should be increased in patients who have a high risk for caries, such as individuals with reduced salivary flow, known as xerostomia. Healthy homes: in-home environmental asthma intervention in a diverse urban community. To receive an electronic copy each week, send an e-mail message to listserv@listserv. These lack the detergents present in many toothpastes that can irritate the dry mouth. Despite the aim to develop the nurses into autonomous advanced practitioners, this was significantly constrained by the participating general practitioners. Supervision and monitoring of child care facilities are critical to facilitate continued compliance with the rules in order to prevent or correct problems before they become serious (2). However, they do not cause hepatitis or biliary atresia in orally inoculated mice 8 Intraperitoneal (i. Holsbeeke et al (1) suggest there are 3 related but separate constructs of physical activity that are distinguished by this person-environment interaction. IgG from a serum sample is bound with high specificity by these antibodies and precipitated. Hypertrichosis is an excessive growth of terminal hair that does not follow an androgen-induced pattern (Fig. You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about Enbrel that was written for healthcare professionals.

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Standard guide for use of a residential swimming pool, spa, and hot tub safety: Audit to prevent unintentional drowning. Recent government initiatives and budget allocations have the potential to contribute to the timeliness of reviews of the practice nurse role. The transverse portion crosses the abdominal cavity toward the spleen, then goes high up into the chest under the ribs, and turns downward at the splenic flexure. The mortality rate for those with pneumonia complicated by bacteremia is approximately 20 percent, but may be as high as 60 percent for elderly patients. For example, if you received a promotion before becoming disabled and if the earnings history did not reflect that promotion, then you must provide proof of the promotion and any earnings adjustment resulting from the promotion. In general, measuring serum electrolyte levels usually is unnecessary in children with mild to moderate dehydration. As soon as a child can stand up, the mattress should be adjusted to its lowest position. Concomitant anxiety and depression should be treated on their own merits (see Table 5. Thus, all children and any adult who did not have the disease as a child should be vaccinated. Active participation of patients with objective exercise prescription enables the patient to actively contribute to their own improvement. If there has been no improvement after four or five treatments there is little to be gained from further freezings. Factors affecting practice nurse involvement in follow-up care of patients following myocardial infarction. Aqueous malathion is effective for eyelash infestations but does not have a product licence for this purpose. The scope of the broader report also examined the use of bronchial thermoplasty for patients with severe asthma. Bernhard Schick, Christian Brunner, Mark Praetorius, Peter Karl Plinkert, Steffi Urbschat. Foods and food additives are the most common culprits but drugs, animal saliva, caterpillars and plants may cause the reaction. Research Additional studies would be valuable to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rotavirus vaccine administered to infants who are born preterm, have immune deficiencies, live in households with immunocompromised persons, have chronic gastrointestinal disease, or start the series late. They began collecting more data on the cancer in 2009 after they had seen more cases. Short-term continuous intraparenchymal intracranial pressure monitoring in presumed idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Appropriate therapy in consultation with a primary care provider is recommended to prevent progression to active tuberculosis disease (1). This finding highlights the ability of practice nurses to embrace new, unfamiliar skills and work practices. It still remains an important preventable burden of disease, especially in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Some fence designs have horizontal supports on the side of the fence that is outside the play area which may allow intruders to climb over the fence. Further, Triple Five looks for companies which would benefit from high-level business and governmental relationships around the world. When age-appropriate health assessments and use of health insurance benefits are promoted by caregivers/ teachers, children enrolled in child care will have increased access to immunizations and other preventive services (4).

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  • Cleft palate lateral synechia syndrome
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Fiscal year 2011: justification of estimates for appropriation committees [cited 2014 May 10]. Efficacy of duloxetine in patients with fibromyalgia: pooled analysis of 4 placebo-controlled clinical trials. Clinical presentation and course Tumours may arise as thickenings in an actinic keratosis or, de novo, as small scaling nodules; rapidly growing anaplastic lesions may start as ulcers with a granulating base and an indurated edge (Fig. Whilst this may initially seem representative of the wider population, this is not so true when considered in terms of individual Area Health Services. The severe impact of rheumatic diseases Life-changing, painful, deforming, costly, crippling, deadly - these are serious words to describe serious diseases. Marriage counseling may be crucial to help couples learn to be more tolerant, understanding, and supportive of one another throughout this extremely painful time. The follicle opening of a closed comedo is nearly covered over by skin so that it looks like a pinhead-sized, ivory-coloured papule. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of enteric Adenoviruses and Rotaviruses in children with diarrhoea in rural Enugu communities of Enugu State South East Nigeria. Thanks to this prophylaxis, the average death rate among infected people declined from about 50% to under 15%. It can spread quickly in groups of small children who are not yet toilet-trained and who cannot wash their own hands well. All public bathrooms should be constructed of materials that are impervious to moisture, bacteria, mold, or fungus growth. Statistically significant reduction between Arm 1 and Arm 3 (no intervention and no placebo), p<0. Such paAnesthesia Issues tients require airway management (intubation) with maintenance of spontaneous respiration, perhaps even awake. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services $101. This is a blended payment system that includes fee-for-service and incentive payments"(p. Facilities might consider counting systems such as using a reminder tone on a watch or musical clock that sounds at timed intervals (about every fifteen minutes) to help the staff remember to count. Complications Transition to a squamous cell carcinoma, although rare, should be suspected if a lesion enlarges, ulcerates or bleeds. Facilities must consider the consequences if they accept responsibility for exposing a child who cannot be fully immunized (because of immaturity) to an unimmunized child who may bring disease to the facility. Manufacturers who guarantee that their 288 Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards equipment meets these standards and provide instructions for use to the purchaser ensure that these technical requirements will be met under threat of product liability. This suggests that floor and ceiling effects may be present in the data; however, floor and ceiling effects may only apply to the sample of brain injury patients included in this study. Influenza One dose of influenza vaccine is highly recommended annually for all childcare workers. Substantiated violations should be well publicized at the program site as well as in other venues (such as resource-and-referral agencies, newspapers, public libraries, online, etc. So the risk of an individual child getting, say, a case of measles is very low too. When lesions are multiple or bilateral, infection becomes less likely unless the lesions are developing in a sporotrichoid manner (p. Caregivers/teachers should consult local police or the local child protection agency about their recommendations for how staff can obtain support from law enforcement authorities. For widespread or stubborn infections systemic itraconazole (200 mg daily for 7 days) has been shown to be curative, but interactions with other drugs must be avoided (Formulary 2, p.

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Rotavirus infection of adults is usually asymptomatic but may cause diarrheal illness. Caregivers/teachers should be aware of environmental hazards such as unsafe drinking water, loud noises, and lead in soil when selecting an area to play outdoors. Neurological surgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of disorders that affect the entire nervous system, including the spinal column, spinal cord, brain and peripheral nerves. Since the introduction of effective immunizations, starting in the 1920s, diphtheria rates have dropped dramatically in the United States and other countries that vaccinate widely. Lumbar spinal fusion: outcome in relation to surgical methods, choice of implant and postoperative rehabilitation. Refer to Section 6 (Sanitation) and 7 (Personal hygiene) of this document for aspects of sanitation and personnel hygiene in primary production. Children who are immunocompromised because of congenital immunodeficiency, or hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation sometimes experience severe, prolonged, and even fatal rotavirus gastroenteritis. Countries should develop educational programs to make consumers more alert to the risk of viruses in certain ready-to-eat foods, such as raw bivalve molluscs harvested near areas of human habitation, (e. If this is suspected, scrapings or blister roofs, not from the hand lesions but from those on the feet, should be sent for mycological examination. A study examining inter-rater and intrarater reliability of a novel instrument for assessment of psoriasis: the Copenhagen Psoriasis Severity Index. The first medications for allergic rhinitis were introduced in the 1940s1 with the discovery of antihistamines, followed by numerous other medication treatment options over the past 70 years. In 2012, the Kaiser Family Foundation reported on a survey that assessed the public opinion of the U. Clinical responses were initially excellent, but with continued use, resistance to nalidixic acid has been increasing in many parts of the world (Dutta and others 2003). Multivalent vaccine candidates were developed in 1985 by using gene reassortment (52 ). However, given the aims of the study, the consensus development conference was identified as being the most appropriate consensus method as it facilitated debate regarding the state of the science and synthesis of ideas from a range of stakeholders. The reports and assessments provide organizations with comprehensive, evidence-based information on common medical conditions and new health care technologies and strategies. Sick leave may promote recovery from illness and thereby decreases the further spread or recurrence of illness. Record Keeping: Child care facilities should keep records of pesticide use at the facility and make the records available to anyone who asks. The infant-toddler set-aside of the Child Care and Development Block Grant: Improving quality child care for infants and toddlers. Continued on next page Vitamin D is a pro-hormone, which means that it must be activated by something to act efficiently in the body. This study demonstrates that using molecular multiplex assay is a highly sensitive method for detecting gastrointestinal pathogens. In Phase 1, the vaccine is tested in a few volunteers for safety and efficacy (immunogenicity), and for an initial indication of the appropriate dose to be used (dose-ranging). CharacteristicsofinsomniaintheUnited States: results of the 1991 National Sleep Foundation Survey. Time-out (also known as temporary separation) is one strategy to help children change their behavior and should be used in the context of a positive behavioral support approach which works to understand undesired behaviors and teach new skills to replace the behavior. Skill mix between nurses and doctors working in primary care - delegation or allocation: A review of the literature. Patch tests are invaluable in detecting the allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis (Chapter 7). Children who are infected with this bacterium will be excluded from childcare while they are symptomatic. As an alternative to a communal water table, separate basins with fresh potable water for each child to engage in water play should be permitted. The methodology accounts for the loss of employer-provided health plans after application of the limit because such costs are exempted from gross income.

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Meningococcal conjugate vaccine for Africa: a model for development of new vaccines for the poorest countries. Prescribing of antibiotics for self-limiting respiratory tract infections in adults and children in primary care. At a minimum: A review of all available records, including academic records, records of prior psychiatric hospitalizations, and records of periods of observation or treatment (e. Previously, high-dose oral contraceptives have been used for managing mild to moderate excessive menstrual bleeding. Introduction Globally, diarrhoea is the second commonest infectious cause of death in children less than five years old [1]. Adequate compensation for skilled workers will not be given priority until the skills required are recognized and valued. Efficacy data are available from two countries- India and Niger Republic (Africa). The virus is spread by large droplets spread through the air from sneezing or coughing, or by direct contact with infected nasal or saliva secretions. Developing a skilled, ethnically and linguistically diverse early childhood workforce. Implementing the strategy calls for four main approaches: i) protecting more people; ii) introducing new vaccines and technologies; iii) integrating immunization with other components in the health systems context; and iv) immunizing in the context of a globally inter-linked, interdependent health and development system. Tobacco By accelerating the adoption of strategies to prevent and reduce tobacco use, we aim to reduce the occurrence of tobacco-related disease in developing countries. President Trump Called Hydroxychloroquine a "Game Changer," But Experts Warn Against SelfMedicating With the Drug. The original indices were validated in men, most of whom had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (68). An oxygen-enriched atmosphere is used only when arterial blood oxygen values fall below 70 mm Hg. Sometimes it is best to examine the patient briefly before obtaining a full history: a quick look will often prompt the right questions. Sensitization to such superantigens is not necessary to prime the immune response. In those cases alternative means of nutrition should be considered if the patient is not expected to remit quickly. Rarely, the organism is inoculated into the skin; more often it is inhaled and then spreads systemically from the pulmonary focus to other organs including the skin. Introduction Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among humankind worldwide. Discussion Although it is likely that most clinicians will think that the answers to the 3 questions asked align closely with their clinical experience for most patients, in select patients the above clinical recommendations may not always apply. The goals of planning for an influenza pandemic are to save lives and to reduce adverse personal, social, and economic consequences of a pandemic. When possible, caregivers/ teachers should substitute materials such as paper, ceramic, glass, and stainless steel for plastics. This type of deficiency, known as a pouce flottant (floating thumb) or residual digit, lacks bones and muscles and is mainly comprised of skin and soft tissue (Figure 2). There is often a history of sudden infant death syndrome in siblings and the correct diagnosis may not be suspected until a second affected child is born. Public health staff can assist in stopping the spread of the infectious disease if they are notified quickly by the licensing agency or the facility (1,2). This requirement does not apply to swing seats, straps, ropes, chains, connectors, and other flexible components. The aim is not only to assist countries on the path to greater financial sustainability, but also to encourage them to base their decisions about vaccine introduction on solid evidence about the burden of disease targeted by a vaccine, and the affordability and likely cost-effectiveness of using the vaccine. Training should of quality ratings, accreditation, credentialing, and other be available to all parties involved, including caregivers/ quality improvement initiatives that are based on impleteachers, public health workers, health care providers, parents/ menting best practices in early childhood education. An expanded population health role for the nurses in general practice - A discussion paper.

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Staff of childbearing age who care for infants and children should be provided the following information: a. Normative values are not available for either scale, although data on the importance of the 26 items are given from a sample of patients with no disability. Testing should be done with the patient wearing corrective lenses as those who have a severe refractive error may experience the phenomenon of ghosting where an object may appear blurred or double when in fact it is not. Toothbrushes and pacifiers should be labeled individually so that children do not share toothbrushes or pacifiers, as specified in Standard 3. The lesions appear as one or more discoloured areas on the fronts of the shins (Fig. Bacteria, viruses, allergies, chemical reactions, and immunological conditions may manifest as redness and discharge from one or both eyes. The child care health consultant may help in creating the care plan, through developing a draft and/or facilitate the primary care provider to provide specific directives to follow within the child care environment. It is interesting to note that, for the majority of participants, additional education or training is not required in these tasks to develop confidence in their application. These patients should be particularly careful to protect their skin from the sun or to avoid sun exposure altogether. State policies regarding nursing delegation and medication administration in child care setttings: A case study. Communication between parents/guardians, the child care program and the primary care provider (medical home) requires the free exchange of protected medical information (2). Wherever possible, these facilities are combined with strong traffic generators such as shopping and entertainment facilities. Health problems lead to considerable productivity loss at work among workers with high physical load jobs. Course Eventually the precursor lesions become frankly invasive and capable of metastasizing. This project employed a postal survey to elicit basic descriptive information about the practice nurses and their roles. Facilities should develop a plan for responding in the event of a fire in or near the facility that includes staff responsibilities and protocols regarding evacuation, notifying emergency personnel, and using fire extinguishers. Health care professionals and other community service agencies are beginning to recognize that child care facilities are a logical opportunity to provide information or referral of children to a medical home. Differential diagnosis the sparing of the folds helps to separate this condition from infantile seborrhoeic eczema and candidiasis. The scale, directions, and scoring requirement are clearly written and understandable. The purpose of this self-report scale is to measure functional ability in the hand. When the skin is stretched, collagen, with its high tensile strength, prevents tearing, and the elastic fibres, intermingled with the collagen, later return it to the unstretched state. If the local anaesthetic is injected into the subcutaneous fat, it will be relatively pain-free, will produce a diffuse swelling of the skin and will take several minutes to induce anaesthesia. The condition is present at birth and is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Providing opportunities to express these emotions, keeping the 338 Chapter 18: Psychosocial Issues lines of communication open, and learning how to process the experience can help siblings work through their emotional responses and find their place in the family system. It is hypothesized that in these cases, spinal manipulation may have a balancing effect on the nerves that supply impulses to the intestinal tract. Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower are best. The program plan should provide for the incorporation of specific health education topics on a daily basis throughout the year. Differential diagnosis Occupational callosities, granuloma annulare and viral warts should be considered. Although intermittent chest radiographs may identify unexpected findings, there is no evidence documenting the effectiveness of daily chest X-rays to reduce adverse outcomes.

References:

  • https://www.myast.org/sites/default/files/11.%20Pediatric%20Transplantation%202020.pdf
  • https://www.seattlechildrens.org/globalassets/documents/healthcare-professionals/neonatal-briefs/how-to-recognize-a-suspected-cardiac-defect-in-the-neonate.pdf
  • http://www.naco.gov.in/sites/default/files/Pediatric_14-03-2014.pdf